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By Stefano Mancuso and Alessandra Viola
ISBN 13: 978-1-61091-603-5
ISBN 10: 1-61091-603-4
Botany or Molecular Biology
Translated from Italian version Verde Brillante: Sensibilita e intelligenza del mondo vegetale, 2013 Giunti Editore S.p.A. Firenze-Milano
The revelations of this book begin with the basic differences between plants and animals, and how humans have been led to believe plants are purely vegetative with no ‘intelligent’ qualities. They talk about how science disproves all those human assumptions and about plant supremacy. Everyone seems to know plants can live without animals, but not even humans can live without plants. They (plants) also reign on Earth as 97% of all life is plant, and the remaining 3% is animal, including humans.
Mancuso and Viola describe how plants organize their ‘bodies’ on an equivalent basis for all parts rather than the specialization of specific organ systems like animals. This provides plants the chance to recuperate even after losing up to 95% of their body. The authors explain how plants have all the senses of humans but use different methods. Plus they have many more sense. Humans, it seems, must change their thinking to see the truth of how smart plants really are. Plants hear, see, speak, feel, and smell but in different capacities using energy waves and operating at the molecular level. They seem to be great molecular manipulators. They also covered how plants communicate, both within body using three different systems, and outside the body by producing different scents. They provided some striking examples of how adept plants, who remain in situ, are at contacting other plants and animals.
Plants as well as communicating with animals can manipulate them. For instance think about this example from the book: “Ususally, when we speak of mimesis we think of animals such as chameleons or walkingsticks. But their considerable mimetic abilities are as nothing compared to what an orchid like Ophrys apifera can do …Its flowers are able to mimic perfectly the shape of the female of certain nonsocial hymneoptera [wasp] …And that isn’t all: besides the female insect’s shape [and color], the orchid imitates the consistency of its tissues, its surface (including the fuzz on its body), and of course also its scent, secreting pheromones identical to the ones produced by females ready to mate” (page 113).
This was only one example, there are more. Some plants can call predator friends in the air or underground to attack their own predators. The question eventually becomes do humans manipulate plants with selective propagation and gene manipulation for their own purposes, or have plants been partners in this endeavor all this time? And don’t tell me it’s all evolution, because that same evolution brought us to where we are today.
I discovered this book on Net Galley and opened it out of curiosity. Bees and their populations are a huge environmental issue right now. I think I’ve mentioned in my last post and in other posts, the volume of honeybees in my area has declined drastically in the last few years. Hopefully this book will help gardeners become aware of plants to draw bees and maybe as gardeners we can provide a welcoming and safe environment for these extremely important insects.
100 Plants to FEED THE BEES: Provide a Healthy Habitat to Help Pollinators Thrive – The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
Publication date: December 2016
Publisher: Storey Publishing, LLC
While this book is a handbook of plants insects need, it is an important book for every gardener. The book begins with a very interesting short version of the multi-million year history of how plants and insects evolved into essential partnerships. For those who have ignored environmental problems, bees have been disappearing, and bees and humans also have an essential partnership. The DNR claims bees pollinate approximately roughly 75% of the vegetables, fruits, and nuts we eat. Personally, I love those plant products and want to keep bees around to do what they do best. Unfortunately, I’ve also noticed a distinct decline in the number of honeybees visiting my plants.
100 PLANTS TO FEED THE BEES offers an extensive list of plants whose flowers provide nectar and pollen for bees, and not only honey bees but native bees and other pollinators such as moths, butterflies, and hummingbirds. Each plant section contains a photo of the plant, the plant’s botanical name, and some basic information on the plant, plus a map of where it grows. Interesting information and sometimes warnings about the plant are also included. An example of a warning is mustard, which is considered a noxious weed in some locations, and illegal to grow.
Included in the 100 plants are native wildflowers and non-native or introduced wildflowers (weeds), garden plants, herbs, trees and shrubs, and even pasture plants. I was glad to see many of the plants I’ve recognized growing in my area, and my garden holds many other recommended selections. I was surprised to see Tilia Americana or the common basswood tree, until I remembered standing under my trees when in bloom and hearing myriad bees busy in the tree’s unseen upper stories. I appreciated the list of insects each plant attracts far beyond bees, too. I looked over an online version of the book, and then pre-order a volume. I recommend all gardeners purchase a copy of 100 PLANTS TO FEED THE BEES, and a big thanks to Xerces Society authors Eric Lee-Mäder, Jarrod Fowler, Jillian Vento, and Jennifer Hopwood for this work.
Spring is going to start early this year. Already the normal 12″ of snow covering my garden this month is gone, the snowdrops are blooming with many honey bees hovering over them. Since most garden books say as soon as the soil can be worked, the cold crops can be planted, I’m going to try it. Just watch, a week or two from now a heavy snow storm will dump on the sprouting seeds. I’ll discover what happens to those baby plants then. I’m ever a pessimistic optimist.
So what are cold crops? Mostly leaf or root crops started from seed that actually prefer growing in colder temperatures. They vary in hardiness, but most will survive frost, and some of them even snow. What makes them great are they are typically short season, too, meaning they’ll be on the table quicker. Many ‘cole’ crops are cold hardy, but cole refers to crops from the Brassica genus or mustard family, vegetables like broccoli, kale, collard greens, kohlrabi, cabbage, or cauliflower. While these are cold crops, many other vegetables are similarly cold hardy.
Most root crops such as carrots and onions (basic cooking foods) parsnips (mashed like potatoes only sweeter), turnips and rutabaga (essential for pasties), beets (borscht and pickled beets, yumm), and leeks (leek and potato soup) prefer cool temperatures. Some leafy vegetables like arugula, lettuce, spinach, Swiss chard, maché (a old leaf crop in France relatively new to the states), and parsley (combine all for marvelous salads, plus spinach and Swiss chard make good cooked greens) favor cool weather. I’ve seen parsley still fresh and ready to use growing up from snow. It is also biennial, meaning it harvests for two years, but it has also reseeded itself in my garden. Peas, which are grown for their fruit, produce best in cooler temperatures.
Some of these leafy crops like spinach, lettuce, and Swiss chard (I’m not fond of kale or collards) will be ready for the table by the end of April. If the summer is relatively cool, they’ll keep sending up new leaves even after several harvestings. The root crops will take longer to develop, but will be ready to harvest when tomatoes and pepper plants are only becoming safe to put in the ground (May 15th to 30th depending on your last frost zone).
Two more good things about cold crops are that they can be planted again in mid-August to the end of September providing a late season crop, but most seed companies have seed sales in the fall, so you get the seeds cheaper. One more good aspect of this is those cheaper seeds will be just as viable for the spring growing seed. I’ve grown fall season carrots, which are very cold, even freezing, hardy, and while I can’t get into the snow covered garden to harvest them, I have dug them from the ground in the early spring.
Yarrow, one of the common weeds found along our roadsides from mid to late summer, is also the ancestor of many favorite plants in today’s gardens. Even with many species, yarrows are easily identified by the unique pine-pepper scent of all plant parts, their tiny typically white or yellow flowers that come in either flat or convex clusters called corymbs, and their fern-like leaves.
Botanically, the weed yarrow is Achillea millefolium, but is known by many common names: Milfoil, Bloodwort, Stanchgrass, Thousandleaf, Nosebleed, Old Mans Pepper, Carpenter’s Weed, Staunchweed, Dog Daisy, Goose Tongue, Sweet Nuns, and Knight’s Balm, and Woundwort. Some of the names come from the plant’s appearance; ‘Milfoil’ and ‘millefolium’ means a thousand leaves, referring to the plants finely dissected leaves. Most of the other names refer to its reputed ability to stop hemorrhage.
Edwin Spencer in his book All About Weeds wrote that “this plant is about as worthless as any that grows.” This is a rather harsh review, but it is true that this naturalized European-native is very invasive and a strong grower.
Some stories say yarrow received the name Achillea because the Greek hero Achilles of Trojan War fame who taught his fellow soldiers to use the herb’s leaves to stop bleeding battle wounds. From that time right up to our country’s Civil War, yarrow was used in battlefield medicine. Throughout history there are many reports on the medical uses of yarrow, from European physicians to the Chinese, Shaker, and Native American herbalists. Some uses seem contradictory, as it was recommended to stuff the nose with yarrow leaves to both cure and cause a nosebleed. Long ago it was long thought that by inducing a nosebleed, you cured a headache.
Modern archeologists have even found yarrow pollen in Neanderthal burial caves indicating man has used this plant for the last 60,000 years. Besides medicine, it has been used for amulets to protect from everything from blindness to robbers, or used as astringent and cleansing lotions, and even yellow dyes. It has also been used in black magic and prophecy. I Ching, the Chinese method of prediction used 50 dried stalks of yarrow in the casting. A European belief held that if you wanted to dream of your future love to sleep on a flannel pillow filled with yarrow.
Of the eighty or so species of yarrow, only four are used as garden plants. Achillea filipendulina ‘Moonshine’ is sold in nurseries everywhere. Its soft-yellow corymbs mix with nearly every other color found in the garden. It has attractive gray-green leaves, loves sun and is drought tolerant, qualities that make it a popular plant. A. ‘Coronation Gold’ and A.’Gold Plate’ are two other well-know cultivars from this genus.
The Achillea millefolium species has come a long way as a garden plant. The original white or cream cultivars now come in pink, red, and orange. They share the drought tolerance of A. f. ‘Moonshine,’ but early colored varieties had a weedy, invasive habit and foliage that tended to get ratty-looking, which made them less desirable plants. However, within the last two decades breeders have crossed the millefolium with other Achillea genus, developing many new cultivars. The size of the corym has increased, the plants are better mannered, less raggedy; the drought resistance remains, and the colors are a wonderful range of soft pink to gingery orange. Check with your nursery for varieties they stock. Others can be found in mail-order catalogs. They are wonderful additions for any garden and a must for dry locations and water-restricted areas.
One of the most beautiful May blooming flowers is Mertensia virginica or Viginia Bluebells. The pink buds elongate into clear blue tubular flowers that hang amid oversize ovate to round shaped leaves. The leaves often grow to fist size or larger. They are a wildflower native to this area, but according to DNR a threatened species since a 1999 survey.
Luckily, because they are so lovely, many nurseries carry Virginia Bluebells, so gardeners can purchase plants. Besides blue, a white and a pink variety are known. According to many horticulturists, the plants are a necessary addition for every garden. After growing them, I agree, but they can need maintenance.
They are part of the Boraginaceae, a plant family known for its glaucous, or hairy, leaves and stems. However, Virginia Bluebells are hairless. Their wide, fragile leaves show they are shade-loving plants. A few hours of early morning light or late afternoon light is fine, or just filtered shade.
Mertensia also need moist, humus, slightly acid soil. If they like their location, they readily spread and reseed themselves, gradually forming a colony of plants. Once in place, leave them alone as they do not like transplanting. They spread and seed readily, and most likely to right where you don’t particularly want them. The first time I planted them, they died in the middle of the summer. I thought I would have to replace them, but like daffodils, Virginia Bluebells are ephemeral and disappear before summer is over. If you watch, after the foliage yellows but just before the plant dies, you will find little seedpods. Spread the seeds in a spot you would like them to grow.
To prevent digging them up after they die back you need to mark where they grew in your garden. To cover the empty space left by their early departure, grow them near plants that will fill the space as they grow, like Hosta or ferns. Annuals can also be interplant among the bluebells while they are growing.
Here is what I find interesting about Virginia Bluebells. I could not find one single legend, piece of lore or historical anecdote about them, not even the name Native Americans had for them. They are not used for food, medicine, or dye, and are not poisonous. Although I found one reference the Cherokee might have used them in herbal medicine, I found no corroborative accounts. So here is a plant loved and grown solely for its fleeting beauty.
This year I planted ‘Van Gogh’s Mix’ but only one variety of the mix came up. They finally bloomed this past week. I expected short, but they’re seven feet at least, but shorter and have a more pure yellow petal than the golden yellow of the Russian Mammoth I grew last year. They still provide exceptionally lovely flowers for the end of the season.
Everything in the vegetable garden had a hard time this summer. I’ll have to do some reading to discover why. The tomatoes are finally coming in. This seems to be the norm this year as I’ve talked to other gardeners. Perhaps the nights were too cool and the days too warm. Don’t know.
As a thank-you gift for judging a flower show I received a pot of Catharanthus (clear or pure flower) roseus (rosy colored), or Madagascar periwinkle or rosy periwinkle. I grew these in St. Charles as an annual and loved them. I don’t run into them that often here in Northern Michigan, but maybe I’m going to the wrong nurseries or not paying attention to the annual departments. I usually shop for perennials. My gift made me think maybe I need to shop better. Hybridizers have worked with this plant and produced the beautiful varieties available today. Warning: the sap can be poisonous. This means when children are around, you need to be extra careful they do not pick or eat the flowers.
Catharanthus roseus makes a colorful display from summer to fall for border or container plantings; sun or lightly shaded areas suit them best, but they perhaps needs a longer growing season than available where I live. I’ve read where they are very slow developing from seed, so planting outdoors isn’t an option here. Rosy periwinkle likes moist soil, not wet, soil and will tolerate dry. This generally means the plant lives on dry sites but looks awful. I left mine in its container and may bring it in this fall to see how it overwinters (not crossing my fingers).
Actually, Rosy Periwinkle (it was originally Vinca rosea when named in 1794), or whatever common name you call it, is a shrubby perennial in tropical and subtropical climates and is widely naturalized from its home habitat of Madagascar. European colonist introduced the plant throughout their travels partly because of its medical uses. WebMD “Despite serious safety concerns, Madagascar periwinkle is used for diabetes, cancer, and sore throat. It is also used as a cough remedy, for easing lung congestion, and to reduce fluid retention by increasing urine production (as a diuretic).”
In colder climates it is grown as an annual for its abundant five petal flowers of pink, red, or white with a deeper pink star in the middle.
The Kew Gardens pages stated “In traditional medicine, the Madagascar periwinkle has been used to treat a variety of ailments in Madagascar as well as in other parts of the world where the plant has naturalised.” Dr. Ombrello of the Union County College Biology Department in Cranford, New Jersey gives this astounding information:
The plant’s therapeutic uses came to the attention of Canadian and American medical researchers during World War II when they learned that soldiers stationed in the Philippines used Madagascar Periwinkle leaves to substitute for unavailable insulin. During the 1950’s… the researchers found them to have no appreciable effect on blood sugar levels, but they did reduce the white blood cell count in laboratory animals without significant side effects. More recently, 2 alkaloids in Madagascar Periwinkle leaves, vinblastine and vincristine, were identified as active anti-cancer agents that could be used in chemotherapy. Vinblastine is used for patients with Hodgkin’s disease and vincristine is used for children with leukemia. With the introduction of vincristine, the survival rate for children with leukemia jumped from 20 to 80 percent.
They also mentioned that during WWII soldiers in the Philippines used the plant to control diabetes when insulin was in short supply. I had no idea anyone with diabetes would be inducted into the army, so there was a surprise.
While a beautiful plant, its potential as a medicine makes me think about our many different ecosystems and what grows there. If we destroy even one habitat, make one plant extinct, we might well be destroying a plant with great potential for human well-being.
My daylilies were just beautiful until I placed the last post on eating Hemerocallis buds. The deer took me up on my challenge and ate all the buds off all the stalks of all the daylilies along the drive. Such is gardening.